This vignette shows how the SBC package supports `brms`

models. Let’s setup the environment:

```
library(SBC)
library(brms)
library(ggplot2)
use_cmdstanr <- getOption("SBC.vignettes_cmdstanr", TRUE) # Set to false to use rstan instead
if(use_cmdstanr) {
options(brms.backend = "cmdstanr")
} else {
options(brms.backend = "rstan")
rstan::rstan_options(auto_write = TRUE)
}
# Using parallel processing
library(future)
plan(multisession)
# The fits are very fast,
# so we force a minimum chunk size to reduce overhead of
# paralellization and decrease computation time.
options(SBC.min_chunk_size = 5)
# Setup caching of results
if(use_cmdstanr) {
cache_dir <- "./_brms_SBC_cache"
} else {
cache_dir <- "./_brms_rstan_SBC_cache"
}
if(!dir.exists(cache_dir)) {
dir.create(cache_dir)
}
```

`brms`

The `brms`

package has a built-in feature to simulate from
prior corresponding to the model via the
`sample_prior = "only"`

option. This is a bit less useful in
model validation as bug in `brms`

(or any mismatch between
what `brms`

does and what we *think* it does) cannot
be found as it will most likely affect the generator and the backend in
the same way. Still this can be useful for validating `brms`

itself - we’ll get to validation with custom generators in a while. For
now, we’ll build a generator using `brms`

directly.

Generating simulations with this generator requires us to compile a Stan model and may thus take a while. Also the exploration is often problematic, so to avoid problems, we take a lot of draws and thin the resulting draws heavily.

```
# We need a "template dataset" to let brms build the model.
# The predictor (x) values will be used for data generation,
# the response (y) values will be ignored, but need to be present and
# of the correct data type
set.seed(213452)
template_data = data.frame(y = rep(0, 15), x = rnorm(15))
priors <- prior(normal(0,1), class = "b") +
prior(normal(0,1), class = "Intercept") +
prior(normal(0,1), class = "sigma")
generator <- SBC_generator_brms(y ~ x, data = template_data, prior = priors,
thin = 50, warmup = 10000, refresh = 2000,
out_stan_file = file.path(cache_dir, "brms_linreg1.stan")
)
```

```
set.seed(22133548)
datasets <- generate_datasets(generator, 100)
```

```
## Running MCMC with 1 chain...
##
## Chain 1 Iteration: 1 / 15000 [ 0%] (Warmup)
## Chain 1 Iteration: 2000 / 15000 [ 13%] (Warmup)
## Chain 1 Iteration: 4000 / 15000 [ 26%] (Warmup)
## Chain 1 Iteration: 6000 / 15000 [ 40%] (Warmup)
## Chain 1 Iteration: 8000 / 15000 [ 53%] (Warmup)
## Chain 1 Iteration: 10000 / 15000 [ 66%] (Warmup)
## Chain 1 Iteration: 10001 / 15000 [ 66%] (Sampling)
## Chain 1 Iteration: 12000 / 15000 [ 80%] (Sampling)
## Chain 1 Iteration: 14000 / 15000 [ 93%] (Sampling)
## Chain 1 Iteration: 15000 / 15000 [100%] (Sampling)
## Chain 1 finished in 0.1 seconds.
```

```
## Warning: Some rhats are > 1.01 indicating the prior was not explored well.
## The highest rhat is 1.05 for lp__
## Consider adding warmup iterations (via 'warmup' argument).
```

Now we’ll build a backend matching the generator (and reuse the compiled model from the generator)

```
backend <- SBC_backend_brms_from_generator(generator, chains = 1, thin = 1,
warmup = 500, iter = 1500,
inits = 0.1)
# More verbose alternative that results in exactly the same backend:
# backend <- SBC_backend_brms(y ~ x, template_data = template_data, prior = priors, warmup = 500, iter = 1000, chains = 1, thin = 1
# init = 0.1)
```

Compute the actual results

```
results <- compute_SBC(datasets, backend,
cache_mode = "results",
cache_location = file.path(cache_dir, "first"))
```

`## Results loaded from cache file 'first'`

`## - 10 (10%) fits had at least one Rhat > 1.01. Largest Rhat was 1.024.`

`## - 46 (46%) fits had some steps rejected. Maximum number of rejections was 1.`

```
## Not all diagnostics are OK.
## You can learn more by inspecting $default_diagnostics, $backend_diagnostics
## and/or investigating $outputs/$messages/$warnings for detailed output from the backend.
```

There are some problems, that we currently choose to ignore (the highest Rhat is barely above the 1.01 threshold, so it is probably just noise in Rhat computation).

So we can inspect the rank plots. There are no big problems at this resolution.

`plot_rank_hist(results)`

`plot_ecdf_diff(results)`

Let’s take a bit more complex model - a linear regression with a single varying intercept.

This time we will not use the `brms`

model to also
simulate from prior, but simulate using an R function. This way, we get
to learn if `brms`

does what we think it does!

Custom generator code also allows us to have different covariate values for each simulation, potentially improving sensitivity if we want to check the model for a range of potential covariate values. If on the other hand we are interested in a specific dataset, it might make more sense to use the predictors as seen in the dataset in all simulations to focus our efforts on the dataset at hand.

The data can be generated using the following code - note that we
need to be careful to match the parameter names as `brms`

uses them. You can call `parnames`

on a fit to see them.

```
one_sim_generator <- function(N, K) {
# N - number of datapoints, K number of groups for the varying intercept
stopifnot(3 * K <= N)
x <- rnorm(N) + 5
group <- sample(1:K, size = N, replace = TRUE)
# Ensure all groups are actually present at least twice
group[1:(3*K)] <- rep(1:K, each = 3)
b_Intercept <- rnorm(1, 5, 1)
b_x <- rnorm(1, 0, 1)
sd_group__Intercept <- abs(rnorm(1, 0, 0.75))
r_group <- matrix(rnorm(K, 0, sd_group__Intercept),
nrow = K, ncol = 1,
dimnames = list(1:K, "Intercept"))
sigma <- abs(rnorm(1, 0, 3))
predictor <- b_Intercept + x * b_x + r_group[group]
y <- rnorm(N, predictor, sigma)
list(
variables = list(
b_Intercept = b_Intercept,
b_x = b_x,
sd_group__Intercept = sd_group__Intercept,
r_group = r_group,
sigma = sigma
),
generated = data.frame(y = y, x = x, group = group)
)
}
n_sims_generator <- SBC_generator_function(one_sim_generator, N = 18, K = 5)
```

For increased sensitivity, we also add the log likelihood of the data
given parameters as a derived quantity that we’ll also monitor (see the
`limits_of_SBC`

vignette for discussion on why this is useful).

```
log_lik_dq_func <- derived_quantities(
log_lik = sum(dnorm(y, b_Intercept + x * b_x + r_group[group], sigma, log = TRUE))
# Testing CRPS, probably not worth it
#, CRPS = mean(scoringRules::crps_norm(y, b_Intercept + x * b_x + r_group[group], sigma))
)
```

```
set.seed(12239755)
datasets_func <- generate_datasets(n_sims_generator, 100)
```

This is then our `brms`

backend - note that
`brms`

requires us to provide a dataset that it will use to
build the model (e.g. to see how many levels of various varying
intercepts to include):

```
priors_func <- prior(normal(0,1), class = "b") +
prior(normal(5,1), class = "Intercept") +
prior(normal(0,5), class = "sigma") +
prior(normal(0,0.75), class = "sd")
backend_func <- SBC_backend_brms(y ~ x + (1 | group),
prior = priors_func, chains = 1,
template_data = datasets_func$generated[[1]],
out_stan_file = file.path(cache_dir, "brms_linreg2.stan"))
```

So we can happily compute:

```
results_func <- compute_SBC(datasets_func, backend_func,
dquants = log_lik_dq_func,
cache_mode = "results",
cache_location = file.path(cache_dir, "func"))
```

`## Results loaded from cache file 'func'`

`## - 31 (31%) fits had at least one Rhat > 1.01. Largest Rhat was 1.098.`

```
## - 5 (5%) fits had tail ESS undefined or less than half of the maximum rank, potentially skewing
## the rank statistics. The lowest tail ESS was 13.
## If the fits look good otherwise, increasing `thin_ranks` (via recompute_SBC_statistics)
## or number of posterior draws (by refitting) might help.
```

`## - 51 (51%) fits had divergent transitions. Maximum number of divergences was 115.`

`## - 2 (2%) fits had iterations that saturated max treedepth. Maximum number of max treedepth was 455.`

`## - 84 (84%) fits had some steps rejected. Maximum number of rejections was 7.`

```
## Not all diagnostics are OK.
## You can learn more by inspecting $default_diagnostics, $backend_diagnostics
## and/or investigating $outputs/$messages/$warnings for detailed output from the backend.
```

So that’s not looking good! Divergent transitions, Rhat problems… And the rank plots also show problems:

`plot_rank_hist(results_func)`

`plot_ecdf_diff(results_func)`

It looks like there is a problem affecting at least the
`b_Intercept`

and `sigma`

variables. We may also
notice that the `log_lik`

(log likelihood derived from all
the parameters) is copying the behaviour of the worst behaving variable.
This tends to be the case in many models, so in models with lots of
variables, it can be useful to add such a term as they make noticing
problems easier.

What happened is that `brms`

by default centers all the
predictors, which changes the numerical values of the intercept (but not
other terms). The interaction with the prior than probably also affects
the other variables.

Maybe we don’t want `brms`

to do this — using
`0 + Intercept`

syntax avoids the centering, so we build a
new backend that should match our simulator better

```
# Using 0 + Intercept also changes how we need to specify priors
priors_func2 <- prior(normal(0,1), class = "b") +
prior(normal(5,1), class = "b", coef = "Intercept") +
prior(normal(0,5), class = "sigma") +
prior(normal(0,0.75), class = "sd")
backend_func2 <- SBC_backend_brms(y ~ 0 + Intercept + x + (1 | group),
prior = priors_func2, warmup = 1000, iter = 2000, chains = 1,
template_data = datasets_func$generated[[1]],
out_stan_file = file.path(cache_dir, "brms_linreg3.stan"))
```

Let’s fit the same simulations with the new backend.

```
results_func2 <- compute_SBC(datasets_func, backend_func2,
dquants = log_lik_dq_func,
cache_mode = "results",
cache_location = file.path(cache_dir, "func2"))
```

`## Results loaded from cache file 'func2'`

`## - 19 (19%) fits had at least one Rhat > 1.01. Largest Rhat was 1.042.`

`## - 4 (4%) fits had divergent transitions. Maximum number of divergences was 2.`

`## - 1 (1%) fits had iterations that saturated max treedepth. Maximum number of max treedepth was 521.`

`## - 85 (85%) fits had some steps rejected. Maximum number of rejections was 8.`

```
## Not all diagnostics are OK.
## You can learn more by inspecting $default_diagnostics, $backend_diagnostics
## and/or investigating $outputs/$messages/$warnings for detailed output from the backend.
```

We see that this still results in some problematic fits, but the proportion got lower. At this point I am honestly unsure what is the issue, but the rank plots look mostly OK:

`plot_rank_hist(results_func2)`

`plot_ecdf_diff(results_func2)`

I promise to update this vignette once I figure out the source of the problems.